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The Strangest Fruit : The Recorded Lynching of Over 100 Black Women

in today’s news…

lynch1Often, when we hear about lynchings, we think about scores of Black men who were hung by the neck from tress, castrated and sometimes burned beyond recognition.  No mention is made of the strangest fruit… the women who were lynched.

And often, the reasons behind the lynchings are more terrifying than the act itself (if that is possible).  I found a listing from Henrietta Davis’s blog (written in 2009) of all the recorded lynchings of over 100 women and decided to present it to you from a different perspective.  As you look at the list, look at the REASONS.  This will show you how crazy it was to be a Black woman post slavery.

Like Mrs. Hastings who was lynched along with her son (who was 16) because her husband was accused of murder, or Mrs. Philips who was hanged with an unnamed child for “no reason”, or Charlotte Morris, who was lynched for living with her white husband (yes..they were married), or the “Negro woman” who was hanged with a “Negro man” for stealing peaches, or Belle Hathaway who was lynched along with four other Black men because their landlord was murdered (not by them),  or Eula Charles who was hung along with her father who was just hustling and bootlegging, and worst of all Mary Turner who was pregnant at time she was murdered by lynching..the reason?  She needed to be “taught a lesson”.

Take the time to review the list focusing on the REASONS.  We owe it to these women, to at least hear their stories, feel their terror and experience the spiritual anger of being dehumanized and removed from life because of bigotry and prejudice.

Name Lynched with County/City   State Allegation
Sept Mrs. John   Simes Henry Co KY Republican
Nov Mrs. Hawkins   (m) Fayette Co KY Republican
—– Hawkins (d) Fayette Co KY Republican
May Mrs. Ben French Warsaw KY murder
4-Nov Maria Smith Hernando MS murder
29-Jul Milly Thompson Clayton GA
6-Dec Julia Brandt   (15) Joe   BarnesVance Brandt Charleston SC theft/murder
*4 Sept Ann (Eliza)   Cowan (35) Newberry SC arson
29-Sep Harriet Finch Jerry   FinchJohn PattishalLee Tyson Chatham Co NC murder
Sept —– Cummins   Pulaski KY
25-Jul Mary Hollenbeck Tattnall GA murder
18-Aug Eliza Wood Madison TN murder
28-Apr Gracy Blanton W. Carroll LA theft
15-Apr Roxie Elliott Centerville AL
9-May Mrs. Lee Lowndes MS son accused of murder
1-Aug Eliza Lowe Henry AL arson
Ella Williams Henry AL arson
28-Sep Louise   Stevenson Grant White Hollandale MS murder
3-Feb Mrs. Martin Sumner Co TN son accused of   arson
10-Feb Mrs. Brisco(w) AK race prejudice
10-Feb Jessie   Dillingham Smokeyville TX train wrecking
11-Mar Ella (15) Rayville LA attempted murder/poisoning
2-Nov Mrs.   Hastings(m) son (16) Jonesville LA husband   accused
Hastings(d,14) Jonesville LA father accused of murder
21-Dec Cora Guthrie,Indian   Territory
19-Mar Jessie Jones Jellico TN murder
18-Jul Meredith Lewis Roseland LA murder
15-Sep Emma Fair Paul HillPaul   ArcherWilliam Archer Carrolton AL arson
16-Sep Louisa Carter   (Lou)(m) Jackson MS poisoning a well
Mahala Jackson   (d) Jackson MS poisoning a   well
Nov Mrs. Phil   Evens (m) Bardstown KY
Evans (d) Bardstown KY
Evans (d) Bardstown KY
4-Nov Mary (Eliza)   Motlow Lynchburg VA arson
9-Nov Rilla Weaver Clarendon AK
6-Mar unknown Negro   woman Pulaski AK
16-Jul Marion Howard Scottsville KY
24-Jul Negro woman Simpson Co MS race prejudice
20-Mar Harriet Tally Petersburg TN arson
21-Apr Mary Deane Greenville AL murder
Alice Green Greenville AL murder
Martha Green Greenville AL murder
1-Jul Mollie Smith Trigg County   KY
20-Jul Mrs. Abe   Phillips (m) unnamed child   (1)Hannah Phillips (d) Mant TX
23-Jul Negro woman Brenham TX
2-Aug Mrs. James   Mason (w) James Mason (h) Dangerfield TX
*28 Aug Negro woman Simpson MS miscegenation
26-Sep Felicia Francis New Orleans LA
11-Oct Catherine   Matthews Baton Rouge LA poisoning
2-Dec Hannah Kearse (Walker,m)Isom   K. (s) Colleton SC stealing a bible
*12 Jan Charlotte   Morris Jefferson LA miscegenation/living with white “husband”
1-Aug Isadora Morely Selma AL murder
18-Nov Mimm Collier Steenston MS
9-Feb Negro woman Carrolton MS theft/arson
5-Mar Otea Smith Julietta FL murder
12-May Amanda Franks Jefferson AL murder
Molly White Jefferson AL murder
22-Feb Dora Baker (d,2)Frazier   Baker(f) Williamsburg   SC race prejudice
9-Nov Rose Etheridge Phoenix SC murder
13-Nov Eliza Goode Greenwood SC murder
189923   March Willia Boyd Silver City MS
2-Mar Mrs. Jim Cross   (m) Lowndes AL
Cross (d) Lowndes AL
7-Jul Lizzie Pool Hickory Plains   AK race prejudice
25-Jul Anna Mabry New Orleans LA race prejudice
28-Aug Negro woman Negro man Forrest City NC theft of peaches
5-Mar Ballie   Crutchfield Rome TN theft
20-Mar Terry Bell Terry MS
1-Aug Betsey McCray   (m) Belfiield (s) Carrolton MS knowledge of murder
Ida McCray (d) Carrolton MS knowledge of   murder
4-Oct Negro woman Marshall TX assault
15-Feb Bell Duly Fulton KY
27-Dec Mrs.Emma   Wideman Oliver Wideman Troy SC murder
Negro woman murder of Mrs.   Frank Matthews
8-Jun Negro woman Negro men (4) Smith County MS murder
24-Jun Lamb Whittle Concordia LA
*25 July Jennie Steers Beard   Plantation, Shreveport LA murder by poison
28-Oct Jennie McCall Hamilton FL by mistake
7-Feb Holbert (w) Luther Holbert Doddsville MS burning barn
*14 June Marie Thompson Lebanon   Junction KY murder
30-Aug unknown Bates Union AK
7-Nov Meta Hicks Mitchell GA husband   accused of murder
20-Mar Negro woman Stamps AK
Negro woman Stamps AK
21-May Mrs. Padgett   (m) Son Tattnall GA son accused of   rape
Padgett (d) Tattnall GA brother accused of rape
3-Oct Mrs. D. Walker   (m) Fulton KY race hatred
Walker (d) Fulton KY race hatred
9-Feb Robby Baskin Houston MS murder
30-Jul Emile Antione Grand Prairie   LA assault
5-Apr Laura Mitchell Lonoke AK murder
*25 Aug Laura Porter Monroe LA disreputable   house
*25 May Laura Nelson L.D. (14)(s) Okemah OK murder
2-Sep Hattie Bowman Ed Christian Greenville FL theft
** Pettigrew (d) Ben Pettigrew   (f) Savannah TN
** Pettigrew (d) Savannah TN
Negro woman Codele GA
*23 Jan Belle Hathaway John MooreEugene HammingDusty Cruthfield Hamilton GA tenants of   murdered man
11-Feb Negro woman Negro children   (3) Beaumont TX
13-Feb Mary Jackson George   Saunders Marshall TX
25-Jun Ann Boston Pinehurst GA murder
13 Mar** Mrs. Joe Perry   (m,w) Joe Perry   (h)SonChild Henderson NC
*31 Mar Marie Scott   (17) Muskogee OK murder
28 May/June** Jennie Collins Shaw MS aiding in escape
17-Jun Paralee   Collins (m) Issac (s) West Plains MO
*12 July Rosa Richardson   (27-35) Providence/Santee   SC murder
25-Nov Jane Sullivan   (w) Fred Sullivan   (h) Byhalia MS burning a barn
15-Jan Eula Charles (Barber,d)Dan   Barber (f) Jasper County   GA parents   accused of bootlegging
Ella Charles (Barber,d)Jesse   Barber(b) Jasper County   GA parents accused of bootlegging
May Briley Pescott AK
17-Aug Hope Hull AL
*8 Dec Cordella   Stevenson Columbus MS
19-Aug Mary Dennis Newberry FL aiding in   escape
Stella Long Newberry FL aiding in escape
4 Oct** Mary Conley Arlington GA complicity in   murder
1-Mar Emma Hooper Hammond LA murder
17-May Mary Turner   (pregnant) Brooks Co GA taught a   lesson
4-Jun Sarah Cabiness unnamed   children(2)Bessie Cabiness(d)Pete (s)Tenola Cabiness(d)Cute Cabiness (d) Huntsville TX threatening white man
4-Sep Mrs. James   Eyer Marion GA
*21 Dec Alma House   (pregnant) Andrew Clark Shubuta MS murder
5-May unknown Negro   woman Holmes MS race prejudice
2-Nov unknown Negro   woman Ocoee FL race prejudice
18-Nov Minnie Ivory Willie   IvoryWill Perry Douglass GA murder
9-Apr Rachel Moore Rankin MS race prejudice
25-Jun Mercy Hall Oklahoma City   OK strike   activity
5-Jan Sarah Carrier Rosewood FL race prejudice
Lesty Gordon Rosewood FL race prejudice
29-Sep Negro woman Pickens MS
31 Sept Negro woman Holmes MS race prejudice
23-Jun Penny   Westmoreland Marcus   Westmoreland Spalding GA
19-Jul —– Sheldon Meridian MS
11-Sep Sarah Williams Shreveport LA
*25 April Annie Lowman   (m) Aiken SC defending her daughter
25-Apr Lily Cobb Birmingham AL
25-May Eliza Bryant Duplin NC success
8-Oct Bertha   Lowman(d,s1) Demon (b) Aiken SC lynched after acquitted of murder
11-Nov Sally Brown Clarence (c) Houston TX
25-Dec Negro woman   (1) Eros LA dispute w/   whites
Negro woman (2) Eros LA dispute w/whites
12-Feb Laura Wood Salisbury NC
5-Jul Viola Dial   (pregnant) Narketta MS race prejudice
6-Jul Mrs. James   Eyers (w) Markeeta MS race prejudice
10-Sep Holly White Pigg Lockett Scooba MS
May Mrs. Wise Frankfort VA resisting Klan
*25 July Dorothy   Malcolm(w) Roger Malcolm   (h) Monroe GA able to   identify mob members
Mae Dorsey (w) George Dorsey   (h) Monroe GA able to identify mob members
*25 March Angenora   Spencer Hyde NC miscegenation
18-Nov Mrs.   Frank Clay Henderson   NC dispute


  • I don’t understand the lynchings where the charge is “race prejudice.”

  • Agree with Ralph! and the lynching of Eliza Bryant for SUCCESS .. makes me so mad i wana scream and cry 🙁

  • I’m mad son cause you scraped stuff off my blog and ain’t even give a link back or a shout out.

    • You shouldn’t be mad because I acknowledged your work in the second paragraph AND called you by name.

      Read before you jump.

      We don’t steal shyt and we ALWAYS reference. We ain’t Boyce Watkins. Dig.

      I accept your apology.

  • absolutely sickening and disgraceful.

  • The worst part is the system and the freelancers to this day are still killing Black people, and
    the system which predicates our murder will never be brought to book,
    so the deniers continue to deny and seek a way of excusing their racial compatriots guilt,
    in ways such as “he must of done something” or
    “Hard to say what the real story is behind that photo”
    but when it comes to the cold brutal lynching or Women and Children,
    they are all held silent.

  • The “lynching” of Mollie Smith in Trigg County, Kentucky, is a bogus entry. Research has proven that the woman named as the victim was already dead when this incident supposedly took place.

    The “Lynching” of Abithal Colston and Mollie Smith – June 28, 1895

    Every major book about lynchings in the United States written in the last 25 years contains an account of the “lynching” of Abithal (or Frank) Colston and Mollie Smith in Trigg County, Kentucky, on June 28, 1895. In the story as told by the books’ authors, the deaths of Colston and Smith is a fairly typical account of a lynching, with all the usual connotations. All of the books cite wire service newspaper stories that originated in Paducah and Louisville as their primary source. However, when checked against local census data, cemetery records, and other primary sources the elaborate stories in the distant newspapers lose their credibility.

    The incident that gave rise to the lynching reports took place at Higgins Landing, a steamboat landing on the Tennessee River about four miles north (downstream) from Eggner’s Ferry. The location is now under the waters of Kentucky Lake’s Higgins Bay. In 1895 the area was extremely remote and inaccessible. Roads were dirt wagon tracks through the forests and fields. The main form of transportation was by small steamboats that plied the Tennessee River in much the same way that delivery trucks operate on the highways today. The boat stopped at locations such as Higgins Landing at most once a day. In some places it stopped only once or twice a week. People lived in isolated farming settlements in the creek valleys in much the same way that they did in the mountain hollows of Appalachia. There were no telephones or other means of rapid communication. Golden Pond, the nearest town, was a village of fewer than 50 people located about 6 miles from Higgins Landing. It had no law enforcement. The nearest law officer was the Trigg County sheriff more than 15 miles away in Cadiz. Getting to Cadiz and back took several hours on horseback and required crossing Cumberland River on a ferry that did not operate at night.

    The chain of events that led to the deaths of Colston and Smith began in 1888, when Abithal Colston, who was described as a “desperado” and a “notorious tough” was accused of horse stealing. William Wadlington, Jr., who was a Trigg County deputy sheriff, attempted to arrest Colston. Abithal Colston shot and badly wounded Wadlington, apparently from ambush somewhere near Golden Pond. Six children and adolescents witnessed the shooting. Five of them, two boys and three girls, were siblings, the children of William H. and Laurana Rhodes. They ranged in age from 6 to 18 years. The sixth witness was a 14 year old neighbor boy named Moses Crump. The principal witnesses were 18 year old George Rhodes, his 16 year old sister Alpha Rhodes, 14 year old John R. Rhodes, and Moses Crump. Colston was convicted and sent to prison on their testimony.

    Seven years later, in the early spring of 1895, Abithal Colston was released (some accounts say escaped) from prison. Colston returned to Trigg County determined to take revenge on the witnesses who had testified against him. On Saturday, May 25, 1895, Colston gunned down Moses Crump as he was walking home from Golden Pond. The Hopkinsville newspaper stated that Crump was struck by three bullets and it was feared that the wounds would be fatal. However, subsequent census data reveals that Crump survived. Colston evaded attempts to capture him for a month, probably by fleeing over the line into Tennessee. Then, on the afternoon of Friday, June 28, 1895, Colston initiated the bloody events that led to his death. Colston first shot John R. Rhodes. From that point, newspaper accounts of what happened vary greatly. The report that reached Hopkinsville, the town nearest the scene whose newspaper has been preserved, gave only the barest outline. The Hopkinsville report and a wire service story that originated in Paducah say that Colston fled and then doubled back to the scene of the crime. He found Chat Hammond, a local farmer, attempting to assist the badly wounded John Rhodes. Colston shot Hammond, killing him instantly. A wire service news report datelined Paducah, July 1 that appeared next day in the San Francisco Call says that after shooting John Rhodes, Colston came upon Chat Hammond “giving Abe Rhodes a drink of water from a spring. This so exasperated Colston that instead of killing Rhodes as he had intended, he killed Hammond. He then left Rhodes, who was unarmed, and went to where Mollie Smith lived.”

  • Census data contradicts the newspaper stories. There was no boy named Abe or Abraham among the Rhodes siblings nor was there anyone else with that name in the area. A common feature of all the news stories is that they refer to five Rhodes brothers, not two brothers and three sisters as was actually the case. This suggests that whoever told the tale to the newspaper reporters who filed the stories in Paducah and Louisville were not eye witnesses and misidentified Alpha Rhodes, a young woman, as a man named Abe Rhodes. This theory is further supported by the fact that there was no one named Chat Hammond listed in the 1880 census (no details of the 1890 census survive) or in county records. There was a neighbor family with the last name Hammon. Chat may have been a nickname for one of the Hammon sons. However, Cemetery Records of Land Between the Rivers, 1814-1973 does not list the grave of anyone named Hammond or Hammon who died on June 28, 1895. To add more confusion, many of the stories misidentified Abithal Colston as Frank Colston. This probably came about as a result of someone confusing the dead murderer with a prominent between the rivers resident named Frank Colston. There was also confusion about the identity of Mollie Smith. The Hopkinsville newspaper later identified the woman killed as Maud Smith.

    Newspapers gave conflicting accounts of what happened after Colston murdered Hammond. The initial report that appeared in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian said that Colston and his female accomplice tried to flee. Members of the Rhodes family overtook them as they were attempting to steal a fisherman’s boat at Higgins Landing. Colston shot at his pursuers and was killed by a shotgun blast. Mollie Smith then picked up Colston’s pistol and pointed it at George Rhodes. Rhodes or someone else with him shot and killed her. An account that originated in Louisville several days later said that Colston went to Smith’s house where they engaged in a night of “drunken carousal.” A posse of armed men surrounded the house and demanded that Colston surrender. When Colston refused a shootout ensued in which both he and Mollie Smith were killed. A variant version of the story says that “shortly after daylight both were found dead on the road. Whether they were shot by the Rhodes boys or their friends may never be known.” Yet another version that was telegraphed to the Sumter, South Carolina, Watchman and Southron from Hopkinsville on July 2 says that several hours after killing Hammond, “Colston went to the house of another farmer in company with a woman and was ordered to leave the premises. They refused and attacked the farmer, who killed them.”

    Newspaper stories about the event display a curious phenomenon: The further the newspaper that printed the story was from where the incident happened, the more detailed and sensational the tale became. The most elaborate version was datelined Louisville, July 1 and appeared in the New York Sun the next day. The story referred to Abithal Colston as “an ex convict and desperado” and called Mollie Smith “a woman of ill repute.” It termed the posse that went in pursuit of Colston and Smith a “lynching party” but the story reads like the description of a shootout comparable to fictionalized tales of the gunfight at the OK Corral with the added novelty of a woman outlaw. It erroneously reported that Colston had been in prison seven years for “killing a farmer, John Crump, on the edge of the Tennessee and Kentucky line.” Several newspapers printed a shorter version of the story headlined “Carnival of Blood.” That version left the impression that the killings were the culmination of a long running feud between Colston and the “five Rhodes brothers.” The distant newspaper stories state that John Rhodes was killed. However, the Hopkinsville newspaper and later census records indicate that Rhodes recovered from his wounds, married, and fathered at least three children.

    An attempt to establish the identity of Mollie or Maud Smith using census and cemetery records failed. A 29-year old black woman named Mollie Smith lived in another part of Trigg County at the time, but she was still alive in 1910. A white woman named Mollie Smith once lived in the immediate vicinity of Higgins Landing, but she died in 1877, eighteen years before the events described took place. This suggests an interesting possibility. Local people, then and now, had a tendency to identify places with long time residents of that location long after that person died. Thus when someone said that Colston “went to where Mollie Smith lived” they may have meant that he went to the house where Mollie Smith once lived, and were not referring to a person who then lived there. Colston’s female companion was most likely a transient whose identity was never known. Alternatively, the killing of Mollie Smith may have been an embellishment added to the story in its process of telling and retelling before it got into the newspapers. In its follow up report on July 5, the one in which it identified the dead woman as Maud Smith, the Hopkinsville Kentuckian stated defensively, “The facts were substantially as reported by the Kentuckian.” The Hopkinsville newspaper’s tone suggests that there was a great deal of misinformation about the incident in circulation locally. The great variation in the wire service news reports reveal that the misinformation found its way into the news stream and was propagated across the country.

    The local furor over the bloody events at Higgins Landing died down within a few days. People in Trigg County probably never knew about the numerous stories, most of them more fiction than fact, that appeared in newspapers across the country from New York to California and all points between. The story faded from local history as the generation to whom it was a living memory died.

    The sensational stories lay buried and forgotten in distant newspaper archives for nearly a hundred years, until 1990. In that year Jay Robert Nash included the incident in his Encyclopedia of World Crime with the erroneous entry, “Abithal Colston, a white man, and Mollie Smith, a black man, both accused of murder, were lynched in Trigg County, Ky., July 1, 1895.” This was the first time that a racial element was introduced into the tale. Also in 1990, George C. Wright included the episode in his Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940; Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings” as two separate incidents in which Abithal Colston, a white man, was lynched for murder and Mollie Smith, a black man, was lynched for rape. From that point the tale took on a life of its own.

    In 1999 Kathleen A. O’Shea listed “Mollie Smith – A black woman lynched in Trigg County, KY” in her Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900-1998. Interestingly, only one name separates Smith’s name and that of Amanda Franks, who was lynched in Alabama on May 11, 1897. Amanda Franks was hanged alongside another young black woman named Mollie Smith. However, O’Shea did not list that Mollie Smith in the roster. O’Shea’s error fixed an African-American identity upon the white woman identified as Mollie Smith in the Trigg County incident.

    Ten years later Yale Professor of African American Studies Crystal N. Feimster wrote in her book Southern Horrors, Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching, “’Four Alleged Bad Characters Brought to Earth’ read the headline describing the lynching of Mollie Smith and her lover, Abithal Colston, in Trigg County, Kentucky, in the summer of 1895. The mob pursuing Colston after he had allegedly murdered two white men found him with Mollie Smith. The bodies of both were riddled with bullets. Smith was described as Colston’s ‘mistress’ and as an ‘undesirable citizen,’ and her execution went unchallenged.”
    Popular history writer Kerry Segrave drew on erroneous newspaper stories in the Logansport Journal of July 3, 1895 and San Antonio Light of July 9, 1895 that misnamed Abithal Colston “Frank Colston” when he wrote Lynchings of Women in the United States, The Recorded Cases 1851-1946 in 2010. Segrave added the hitherto unmentioned detail that stolen goods found among Colston’s possessions implicated him in the murder of a peddler found dead near Golden Pond two months earlier. This was probably a distorted echo of the shooting of Moses Crump. Segrave further embellished the story with an even more sensational detail, namely that after Colston’s death evidence was discovered that linked him to 11 other murders. The “11 murders” addition may owe its introduction to conflation of the 1895 Trigg County shootings with the 1897 hangings of Amanda Franks and Mollie Smith in Alabama. Their alleged crime was poisoning 14 members of the Joshua A. Kelly (some of the more than 30 newspapers that reported the lynchings say Joseph O’Kelly) family, at whose home they were employed as household servants.

    The story then entered the realm of student writing and popular history. Lauren M. Davis, in her 2012 Baylor University master’s thesis “A Novelty in the Line of Lynching: Female Victims of Lynching in the United States 1882-1902” portrayed Mollie Smith as the innocent victim of a lynch mob. Davis took the stories published in recent books and two sensationalized contemporary newspaper stories at face value. The tale has now found its way onto popular internet sites that catalog lynchings—some of whose operators angrily denounce any attempt to set the story straight.

  • New York Sun (New York, NY) July 2, 1895, San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA) July 2, 1895. All newspapers cited in this paper are available on the Library of Congress, Chronicling America website.
    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) May 31, 1895; U. S. Census 1880, Trigg County, KY (Ferguson Springs Precinct). The Ferguson Springs precinct included Higgins Landing.

    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) May 31, 1895.

    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) July 2, 1895; The Record Union (Sacramento, CA) July 2, 1895; The Sun (New York, NY) July 2, 1895.

    San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA) July 2, 1895. A slightly variant version of the same story appears in the Logansport Journal (Logansport, IN) of July 3, 1895. In that paper the name “Abe Rhodes” appears as “Al Rhodes.”

    The Ohio Democrat (Logan, OH) July 3, 1895.

    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) July 5, 1895.

    The Record-Union (Sacramento, CA) July 2, 1895.

    The Watchman and Southron (Sumter, SC) July 2, 1895.

    The Sun (New York, NY) July 2, 1895.

    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) July 5, 1895; U. S. Census 1900 and 1910, Trigg County, Kentucky.

    U. S. Census 1910, Trigg County, Kentucky, Magisterial District 5. Magisterial District 5 was the Roaring Springs – Long Hollow area.

    Judith Ann Bream, comp., Cemetery Records of Land Between the Rivers, 1814-1973. Bound manuscript in the John L. Street Library, Cadiz, Kentucky “Smith Cemetery” p. 158.

    Hopkinsville Kentuckian (Hopkinsville, KY) July 5, 1895.

    Jay Robert Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime: S-Z (Wilamette: Crime Books, 1990), 3346.

    George C. Wright, Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings” (Baton Rouge: University of Louisiana Press, 1990), 318.

    Kathleen A. O’Shea, Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900-1998 (Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 1999), 10.

    Crystal N. Feimster, Southern Horrors, Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Boston: Harvard University Press, 2009), 183; Roanoke Times (Roanoke, VA) May 13, 1897.

    Kerry Segrave, Lynching of Women in the United States, The Recorded Cases 1851-1946 (Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2010), 80.

    Roanoke Times (Roanoke, VA), May 13, 1897. The story appeared in at least 32 newspapers between May 13 and August 28, 1897; Kinsley Graphic (Kinsley, KS), May 21, 1897; Juniata Sentinel and Republican (Mifflintown, PA), May 19, 1897.

    Lauren M. Davis “A Novelty in the Line of Lynching: Female Victims of Lynching in the United States, 1882-1902” M.A. Thesis. Baylor University, 2012, p. 29.

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